samedi 13 juin 2009
Sustainable developpment between promises and actions "Chaalal moulay
Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their (brundtland commission).
Two concepts are inherent in this concept: the concept of [appropriate], especially the basic needs of the poor, who should be given the highest priority, and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of our techniques and social organization imposes on the ability of the environment to meet current and future.
It means to say a double solidarity:
• in space: every person on this earth has the same human right to land resources;
• in time: we have the right to use the resources of the earth but the duty to ensure their sustainability for generations to come (Intergenerational solidarity).
this concept well defended especially by those who benefit most from the common property of all humanity,hides a very different reality, here are some examples of equity and social justice that prevail in today's world:
20% of inhabitants living in the richest countries consume: 45% of animal protein in the world, 58% of energy (and emit 53% of CO2 released into the atmosphere), 84% of the paper.
have 88% of vehicles.
If per capita consumption increased by 6.1% per year in East Asia and 2% in South Asia, that of an average African household has declined by 20% in 25 years.
2.6 billion people are without sanitation, 2 billion live without electricity, 1.3 billion people lack access to safe drinking water, 1 billion lack proper housing, 880 million people are without access to health services and 840 million suffer from malnutrition. 22% of school-age children are not in school (109 million), 885 million people aged 15 and over are illiterate.
The 3 richest people in the world have a fortune greater than the GDP of 48 poorest countries. The world spends annually $ 780 billion for defense, 400 billion in drugs, 50 billion is the cost of cigarettes smoked per year in Europe, and 435 billion annual spending on advertising.
since 1950 , consumption of fossil fuels has increased fivefold, and CO2 emissions by four. These are very unevenly distributed: 20.5 tons per year per capita for the United States, 10.3 for Germany, 3.9 for Mexico, 2.7 for China, 1.6 for Brazil ...
Since 1970, the proportion of wooded areas increased from 11.4 km2 for 1000 to 7.3 km2. Deforestation affects mainly developing countries, and the loss of tropical forests is virtually irreversible.Some 12% of mammal species and 11% of bird species are threatened.
As a result of overgrazing and other improper practices, 9 million hectares of land is severely degraded, and 2 billion hectares, or one sixth of the land is moderately degraded.